Glucose and cAMP-inducing agents such as 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) rapidly change the expression profile of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells mostly through post-transcriptional mechanisms. A thorough analysis of these changes, however, has not yet been performed. By combining two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified 165 spots, corresponding to 78 proteins, whose levels significantly change after stimulation of the beta-cell model INS-1 cells with 25 mM glucose + 1 mM IBMX for 2 h. Changes in the expression of selected proteins were verified by one- and two-dimensional immunoblotting. Most of the identified proteins are novel targets of rapid regulation in beta-cells. The transcription inhibitor actinomycin D failed to block changes in two-thirds of the spots, supporting their post-transcriptional regulation. More spots changed in response to IBMX than to glucose alone conceivably because of phosphorylation. Fourteen mRNA- binding proteins responded to stimulation, thus representing the most prominent class of rapidly regulated proteins. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the mRNA 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of 22 regulated proteins contain potential binding sites for polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1, which promotes mRNA stability and translation in stimulated beta-cells. Overall our findings support the idea that mRNA-binding proteins play a major role in rapid adaptive changes in insulin-producing cells following their stimulation with glucose and cAMP-elevating agents.