Objective: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-heat cooking of many common foods. The validity of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measures of acrylamide intake has not been established. We assessed the validity of acrylamide intake calculated from an FFQ using a biomarker of acrylamide exposure.
Methods: We calculated acrylamide intake from an FFQ in the Nurses' Health Study II. We measured hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite, glycidamide, in a random sample of 342 women. Correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between acrylamide intakes and adducts.
Results: The correlation between acrylamide intake and the sum of acrylamide and glycidamide adducts was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.20-0.41), adjusted for laboratory batch, energy intake, and age. Further adjustment for BMI, alcohol intake, and correction for random within-person measurement error in adducts gave a correlation of 0.34 (CI: 0.23-0.45). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the sum of adducts was 0.77 in blood samples collected 1-3 years apart in a subset of 45 women. Intake of several foods significantly predicted adducts in multiple regression.
Conclusions: Acrylamide intake and hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide were moderately correlated. Within-person consistency in adducts was high over time.