Medicinal Agents in the Metabolic Syndrome

Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2008 Oct;6(4):237-52. doi: 10.2174/187152508785909465.


The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become a worldwide health problem. It is difficult for patients to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms, therefore the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. The cardiovascular consequences associated with the syndrome and some of the therapeutic approaches are discussed. The different agents can be divided into several groups: Inorganic/ organic: Zinc complexes with garlic components as insulino-mimetics; Selenium as antioxidant; Copper, Zinc and Manganese as microcomponents of antioxidant enzymes. Organic: Natural or Synthetic: Glycine is effective in lowering blood pressure, TBARS, intra-abdominal fat tissue and triglycerides in sucrose-fed rats. Pharmaceutical products: Fibrates, Lipid-lowering drugs. Antidiabetics. Anti-gout agents. On the other hand there are natural products such as those of animal origin: Sex hormones (also synthetic) used in the problems of menopause and hypoandrogenism frequently found in the MS, antioxidant Omega-3-oils (fish oils) or Vegetal: for example Digitalis pupurea, century-old cardiovascular medication as well as Magnolia officinalis; Spirulina maxima with beneficial effects as antioxidant and lipid-lowering agent, among others. Prickly Pear Cacti. (Opuntia Ficus- Indica Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng) whose many properties against diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have been empirically known for many years. Perezone (from Perezia plants, a.k.a. Peonia) described as an antiplatelet aggregating agent. The mixed elements in the Mediterranean diet: Fish, salads (peppers, tomatoes), olive oil, garlic, red wine which combines fish oils, garlic and avocado as well as antioxidants from the rest of its components.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Diet
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Fatty Acids / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / metabolism
  • Obesity / drug therapy
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Soybean Proteins / administration & dosage


  • Antioxidants
  • Fatty Acids
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Soybean Proteins