The first signs of influenza activity during the 2007/'08 influenza season in the Netherlands were sporadic isolations of influenza viruses between week 40 and week 52 of 2007. The frequency of virus isolations and clinical influenza activity increased after week 1 of 2008 and peaked around week 9. In this week, 7.2 patients with influenza-like illness were recorded per 10,000 inhabitants. The influenza epidemic was caused primarily by influenza A/H1N1 viruses and influenza B viruses. Two antigenically distinct variants of influenza A/H1N1 viruses were isolated, which resembled the 2007/'08 vaccine reference strain A/Solomon Islands/3/06 and the new vaccine reference strain A/Brisbane/59/07, respectively. The most remarkable finding was that 27% of the A/H1N1 viruses isolated in the Netherlands during the 2007/'08 epidemic were resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. The isolated influenza B viruses originated from the B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage and did not match the vaccine strain, which originated from a different and antigenically distinct lineage of influenza B viruses (B/Victoria/2/87). Only a small number of influenza A/H3N2 viruses was isolated, which were related to the vaccine strain for this subtype (A/Wisconsin/67/05). Thus in contrast to previous influenza seasons, A/H3N2 viruses did not play a major role in the 2007/'08 influenza season in the Netherlands. For the 2008/'09 influenza season, the World Health Organization has recommended the following vaccine composition: A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1), A/Brisbane/10/07 (H3N2) and B/Florida/4/06.