Osteoid osteoma is a benign skeletal neoplasm composed of osteoid and woven bone that rarely exceeds 1.5 cm in greatest dimension. The lesion is most commonly located in the cortex of long bones where it is associated with dense, fusiform, reactive sclerosis. Less often, it may be cancellous, where reactive osteosclerosis is usually less intense and may be distant from the lesion. Cancellous lesions are frequently intraarticular (most often in the hip) and may be associated with synovitis and joint effusion. Rarely, osteoid osteomas occur in a subperiosteal location. Patients are usually young, and there is a strong male predominance. Pain is the most common symptom. Radiographs of patients with cortical osteoid osteoma are often diagnostic. Intraarticular lesions, however, may be subtle, and scintigraphy may be required to locate the lesion for subsequent computed tomography (CT). CT is useful to identify and precisely locate the lesion and to provide guidance for percutaneous localization or treatment.