The specificity of protection conferred by Aro- salmonellae was studied in BALB/c mice challenged 3 months after intravenous (i.v.) vaccination, more than 1 month after the vaccine had been cleared. Oral challenge showed better protection than i.v. challenge. Salmonella typhimurium aroA SL3261 conferred very good protection against wild-type S. typhimurium C5 (over 10,000 x LD50). Cross protection experiments were performed using S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and S. dublin for vaccination and challenge, including variants of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis of similar virulence differing in the main LPS antigen (O-4 or O-9). Salmonella typhimurium aroA conferred solid protection against S. typhimurium (O-4), but no protection against wild-type S. enteritidis (O-9). However challenge with LPS variant strains showed that although protection was generally better to strains of the homologous LPS type, specificity of protection was determined more by the parent strain background (S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis) of the challenge than by O-factors 4 or 9, suggesting that other antigens are involved. The nature of the protective antigen(s) in this model is unclear, but it does not appear to be the main O-specific antigen. A S. enteritidis Se795 aroA vaccine gave good protection against wild-type S. enteritidis Se795 2 weeks after vaccination, but much less at 3 months (approximately 10-200 x LD50), although the persistence of the S. enteritidis aroA vaccine in the liver and spleen was similar to that of the S. typhimurium vaccine, and the wild-type Se795 challenge strain was of similar virulence to S. typhimurium C5. A S. dublin aroA vaccine conferred similar protection against wild-type S. dublin (approximately 300 x LD50).