A rapid spectrophotometric determination of persulfate anion in ISCO

Chemosphere. 2008 Nov;73(9):1540-3. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.08.043. Epub 2008 Oct 14.


Due to a gradual increase in the use of persulfate as an in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) oxidant, a simple measurement of persulfate concentration is desirable to analyze persulfate distribution at designated time intervals on/off a site. Such a distribution helps evaluate efficacy of ISCO treatment at a site. This work proposes a spectrophotometric determination of persulfate based on modification of the iodometric titration method. The analysis of absorption spectra of a yellow color solution resulting from the reaction of persulfate and iodide in the presence of sodium bicarbonate reveals an absorbance at 352 nm, without significant interferences from the reagent matrix. The calibration graph was linear in the range of persulfate solution concentration of 0-70 mM at 352 nm. The proposed method is validated by the iodometric titration method. The solution pH was at near neutral and the presence of iron activator does not interfere with the absorption measurement. Also, analysis of persulfate in a groundwater sample using the proposed method indicates a good agreement with measurements by the titration method. This proposed spectrophotometric quantification of persulfate provides a simple and rapid method for evaluation of ISCO effectiveness at a remediation site.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anions / chemistry
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Environmental Pollutants / analysis
  • Environmental Pollutants / chemistry*
  • Environmental Pollutants / standards
  • Environmental Restoration and Remediation
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Iron / chemistry
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Sulfates / analysis
  • Sulfates / chemistry*
  • Sulfates / standards


  • Anions
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Sulfates
  • Iron