Low serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D frequently occur after renal transplantation, but few studies have evaluated the effects of normalizing this on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels or urinary calcium excretion. To determine this we compared the outcomes of 94 renal transplant patients with low 25-hydroxy vitamin D and normal serum calcium levels who were either treated or not with cholecalciferol every 2 weeks for 2 months (intensive phase) followed by an every other month maintenance phase. The biological characteristics of the two equally divided patient groups did not differ before treatment. After the intensive phase, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were normalized in all but 3 patients and the serum parathyroid hormone decreased and calcium levels increased with no severe adverse effects. During the maintenance phase, the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level decreased but remained significantly higher than in controls. In the control group, the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration increased slightly but became normal in only three patients. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly higher and parathyroid hormone levels were lower in treated patients compared to controls one year following transplant. Hence, cholecalciferol treatment significantly increased serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and decreased parathyroid hormone levels with no adverse effects in 25-hydroxy vitamin D-deficient renal transplant patients.