Alterations in hepatic glucose and energy metabolism as a result of calorie and carbohydrate restriction

Hepatology. 2008 Nov;48(5):1487-96. doi: 10.1002/hep.22504.


Carbohydrate restriction is a common weight-loss approach that modifies hepatic metabolism by increasing gluconeogenesis (GNG) and ketosis. Because little is known about the effect of carbohydrate restriction on the origin of gluconeogenic precursors (GNG from glycerol [GNG(glycerol)] and GNG from lactate/amino acids [GNG(phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP))]) or its consequence to hepatic energy homeostasis, we studied these parameters in a group of overweight/obese subjects undergoing weight-loss via dietary restriction. We used (2)H and (13)C tracers and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure the sources of hepatic glucose and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux in weight-stable subjects (n = 7) and subjects following carbohydrate restriction (n = 7) or calorie restriction (n = 7). The majority of hepatic glucose production in carbohydrate restricted subjects came from GNG(PEP). The contribution of glycerol to GNG was similar in all groups despite evidence of increased fat oxidation in carbohydrate restricted subjects. A strong correlation between TCA cycle flux and GNG(PEP) was found, though the reliance on TCA cycle energy production for GNG was attenuated in subjects undergoing carbohydrate restriction. Together, these data imply that the TCA cycle is the energetic patron of GNG. However, the relationship between these two pathways is modified by carbohydrate restriction, suggesting an increased reliance of the hepatocyte on energy generated outside of the TCA cycle when GNG(PEP) is maximal.

Conclusion: Carbohydrate restriction modifies hepatic GNG by increasing reliance on substrates like lactate or amino acids but not glycerol. This modification is associated with a reorganization of hepatic energy metabolism suggestive of enhanced hepatic beta-oxidation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diet, Reducing*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates*
  • Energy Intake*
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Female
  • Food Preferences
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Glucose