Socioeconomic risk factors for bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia in adults

Epidemiol Infect. 2009 May;137(5):717-26. doi: 10.1017/S0950268808001489. Epub 2008 Oct 17.


Demographic and clinical risk factors are important in guiding vaccination policy for pneumococcal pneumonia. We present data on these variables from a population-based surveillance network covering adult bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) in the Delaware Valley region from 2002 to 2004. Surveillance data were used with U.S. Census data and a community health survey to calculate stratified incidence rates. Missing data were handled using multiple imputation. Overall rates of adult BPP were 10.6 cases/100 000 person-years. Elevated rates were seen in the elderly (>65 years), Native Americans, African Americans, the less-educated (less than high-school education), the poor, smokers, and individuals with histories of asthma, cancer, or diabetes. Multivariable modelling suggested that income was more robustly associated with risk than African American race. Of methodological interest, this association was not apparent if census block-group median income was used as a proxy for self-reported income. Further research on socioeconomic risk factors for BPP is needed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bacteremia / epidemiology*
  • Bacteremia / microbiology*
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / complications*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / isolation & purification*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult