Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most prevalent non-protein thiol in animal cells. Its de novo and salvage synthesis serves to maintain a reduced cellular environment. GSH is the most powerful intracellular antioxidant and plays a role in the detoxification of a variety of electrophilic compounds and peroxides via catalysis by glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx). As a consequence, the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) serves as a representative marker of the antioxidative capacity of the cell. A deficiency in GSH puts the cell at risk for oxidative damage. An imbalance in GSH is observed in a wide range of pathologies, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF), several viral infections including HIV-1, as well as in aging. Several reports have provided evidence for the use of GSH and molecules able to replenish intracellular GSH levels in antiviral therapy. This non-conventional role of GSH and its analogs as antiviral drugs is discussed in this chapter.