GSH and analogs in antiviral therapy

Mol Aspects Med. Feb-Apr 2009;30(1-2):99-110. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2008.09.001. Epub 2008 Sep 27.

Abstract

Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most prevalent non-protein thiol in animal cells. Its de novo and salvage synthesis serves to maintain a reduced cellular environment. GSH is the most powerful intracellular antioxidant and plays a role in the detoxification of a variety of electrophilic compounds and peroxides via catalysis by glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx). As a consequence, the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) serves as a representative marker of the antioxidative capacity of the cell. A deficiency in GSH puts the cell at risk for oxidative damage. An imbalance in GSH is observed in a wide range of pathologies, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF), several viral infections including HIV-1, as well as in aging. Several reports have provided evidence for the use of GSH and molecules able to replenish intracellular GSH levels in antiviral therapy. This non-conventional role of GSH and its analogs as antiviral drugs is discussed in this chapter.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Glutathione / analogs & derivatives*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione / physiology*
  • Glutathione Disulfide / metabolism
  • Glutathione Disulfide / physiology
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*

Substances

  • Antiviral Agents
  • Glutathione
  • Glutathione Disulfide