NCBI Reference Sequences: current status, policy and new initiatives

Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D32-6. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn721. Epub 2008 Oct 16.


NCBI's Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database ( is a curated non-redundant collection of sequences representing genomes, transcripts and proteins. RefSeq records integrate information from multiple sources and represent a current description of the sequence, the gene and sequence features. The database includes over 5300 organisms spanning prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses, with records for more than 5.5 x 10(6) proteins (RefSeq release 30). Feature annotation is applied by a combination of curation, collaboration, propagation from other sources and computation. We report here on the recent growth of the database, recent changes to feature annotations and record types for eukaryotic (primarily vertebrate) species and policies regarding species inclusion and genome annotation. In addition, we introduce RefSeqGene, a new initiative to support reporting variation data on a stable genomic coordinate system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Databases, Genetic*
  • Exons
  • Genomics / standards
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Proteins / chemistry
  • Pseudogenes
  • RNA, Untranslated / chemistry
  • Reference Standards
  • Sequence Analysis / standards*


  • Proteins
  • RNA, Untranslated