The anti-tumor response of human invariant NKT (NKT) cells is well established. A novel T cell subset, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, possesses similar regulatory properties to NKT cells in autoimmune models and disease. Here, we examined the clonality of four T cell subsets expressing invariant alphaTCR, including Valpha7.2-Jalpha33 of MAIT cells, in 19 kidney and brain tumors. The MAIT clonotype was identified and co-expressed with NKT clonotype in half of the tumors. In contrast, two other invariant T cell clonotypes (Valpha4 and Valpha19) were not present in tumors. Such tumors also expressed Vbeta2 and Vbeta13, the restricted TCRbeta chain of MAIT cells and the antigen-presenting molecule MR1. A high percentage of infiltrating T cells was CD8+ and expressed HLA-DR suggesting activation. Although the MAIT alphaTCR was identified in both peripheral CD56+ and CD56- subsets, infiltrating lymphocytes were CD56 negative. The clonal presence of MAIT cells in tumors correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines but no IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, suggesting that a pro-inflammatory subset of human MAIT cells may exist. Our data imply that a CD56- subset of MAIT cells may participate in tumor immune responses similarly to NKT cells.