Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most frequently encountered tumor in the adult kidney. Many factors are known to take part in the development and progression of this tumor. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a family of the genes that includes five members acting in events such as inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, the role of NF-kappaB (p50 subunit) in ccRCC and its relation to angiogenesis and apoptosis were investigated.
Methods: Formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 40 patients with ccRCC were studied. Expressions of NF-kappaB (p50), VEGF, EGFR, bc1-2 and p53 were detected immunohistochemically. The relationship of NF-kappaB with these markers and clinicopathological findings were evaluated.
Results: The expression of NF-kappaB was detected in 35 (85%), VEGF in 37 (92.5%), EGFR in 38 (95%), bc1-2 in 33 (82.5%) and p53 in 13 (32.5%) of 40 ccRCC patients. Statistical analyses revealed a significant relation between NF-kappaB expression and VEGF (p = 0.001), EGFR (p = 0.004), bc1-2 (p = 0.010) and p53 (p = 0.037). There was no significant correlation between NF-kappaB and such parameters as tumor grade, stage, age and sex.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that in ccRCC cases NF-kappaB was associated with markers of angiogenesis and apoptosis such as VEGF, EGFR, bc1-2 and p53. In addition, the results did not only suggest a close relationship between NF-kappaB and VEGF, EGFR, bc1-2 and p53 in ccRCC, but also indicate that NF-kappaB was a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of ccRCC resistant to chemotherapy.