Objective: Dietary caloric restriction (CR) has been found to reduce systemic markers of inflammation and may attenuate the effects of chronic inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term CR on naturally occurring chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in a nonhuman primate model.
Methods: The effects of long-term CR on extent and severity of naturally occurring chronic periodontal disease, local inflammatory and immune responses, and periodontal microbiology, were evaluated in a cohort of 81 (35 female and 46 male; 13-40 y of age) rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with no previous exposure to routine oral hygiene. CR monkeys had been subjected to 30% CR for 13-17 y relative to control-fed (CON) animals starting at 3-5 y of age.
Results: Same sex CR and CON monkeys exhibited similar levels of plaque, calculus, and bleeding on probing. Among CON animals, males showed significantly greater periodontal breakdown, as reflected by higher mean clinical attachment level and periodontal probing depth scores, than females. CR males exhibited significantly less periodontal pocketing, lower IgG antibody response, and lower IL-8 and ss-glucuronidase levels compared to CON males, whereas CR females showed a lower IgG antibody response but comparable clinical parameters and inflammatory marker levels relative to CON females. Long-term CR had no demonstrable effect on the periodontal microbiota.
Conclusion: Males demonstrated greater risk for naturally occurring periodontal disease than females. Long-term CR may differentially reduce the production of local inflammatory mediators and risk for inflammatory periodontal disease among males but not females.