The newborn ovary homeobox gene (NOBOX) is an oocyte-specific homeobox gene that plays a critical role in early folliculogenesis, thus representing an attractive candidate gene for nonsyndromic ovarian failure. We investigated whether perturbation in the homeodomain region of NOBOX was present in Chinese women with premature ovarian failure (POF). We sequenced 200 Chinese patients with POF, and discovered only two known single nucleotide polymorphisms: in intron 6 (c.1154+11 T>C and c.1155-22 G>A); neither offers plausible explanations for POF. Failing to find causative mutation contrasts with our previous study in a caucasian sample, in which we found plausible homeobox mutation in 1 of 96 POF cases. Mutations in the homeobox domain of NOBOX are not common explanations for POF in Chinese women.