High doses of sodium saccharin, a non-genotoxic chemical, lead to the formation of silicate-containing precipitate and microcrystals in urine of male rats. Differences in urinary protein, pH, sodium and other factors affect silicate-containing precipitate and microcrystal formation as well as the bladder effects of sodium saccharin. Total urinary silicon concentration (mostly soluble) in sodium saccharin-fed rats is similar to or lower than the concentration in control rats. Binding of saccharin to male rat urinary proteins was demonstrated by equilibrium-gel filtration. We propose that by binding to urinary proteins under appropriate conditions, saccharin produces a nidus for the formation of silicate-containing precipitate and crystals. These appear to be cytotoxic to the superficial bladder epithelium, with cell death resulting in regenerative hyperplasia. Factors that influence the formation of these silicate-containing materials might provide a rationale for sex, species, dose and dietary differences in response to sodium saccharin.