New thermoreversible liquid embolic agent for embolotherapy: technical report

Neuroradiology. 2009 Feb;51(2):95-8. doi: 10.1007/s00234-008-0469-4. Epub 2008 Oct 21.


Introduction: To evaluate potential feasibility of new liquid embolic agent, thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP), for embolotherapy.

Methods: TGP is a liquid polymer that was originally developed as a cell culture medium for tissue engineering. TGP becomes liquid at temperatures lower than the sol-gel transition temperature (TT) and becomes a gel at temperatures higher than the TT. The TT can be adjusted from 10 degrees C to 40 degrees C, allowing gelation at body temperature without solvent. The renal arteries in six swine were embolized with TGP. Angiographic evaluations were obtained 0, 3 h, and 14 days after embolization. The animals were sacrificed at day 14 after angiogram.

Results: All renal arteries were successfully embolized with TGP using cooling catheter. No acute and chronic clinical complication was observed. Follow-up angiogram demonstrated complete or near complete occlusion of renal arteries. No untoward inflammatory response was observed in acute and chronic specimen.

Conclusion: This embolic material has potential feasibility to be used in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, or hyper vascular tumors.

Publication types

  • Technical Report

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Flow Velocity / physiology*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / methods*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Hemostatics / administration & dosage*
  • Hemostatics / chemistry*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Renal Artery / drug effects*
  • Renal Artery / physiology*
  • Solutions
  • Swine


  • Hemostatics
  • Solutions