Adenosine triphosphate, ATP, is the energy currency of living cells. While ATP synthases of archae and ATP synthases of pro- and eukaryotic organisms operate as energy producers by synthesizing ATP, the eukaryotic V-ATPase hydrolyzes ATP and thus functions as energy transducer. These enzymes share features like the hydrophilic catalytic- and the membrane-embedded ion-translocating sector, allowing them to operate as nano-motors and to transform the transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient into ATP or vice versa. Since archaea are rooted close to the origin of life, the A-ATP synthase is probably more similar in its composition and function to the "original" enzyme, invented by Nature billion years ago. On the contrary, the V-ATPases have acquired specific structural, functional and regulatory features during evolution. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the structure, mechanism and regulation of A-ATP synthases and V-ATPases. The importance of V-ATPase in pathophysiology of diseases will be discussed.