Foot surface area database and estimation formula

Appl Ergon. 2009 Jul;40(4):767-74. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2008.08.004. Epub 2008 Oct 19.


The purpose of this study is to establish a foot surface area (FSA) database and estimation formula based on 3-D foot scan data. For each gender, 135 subjects stratified in five statures and three body weights were drawn. The foot was measured using a high-resolution 3-D foot scanner, of which the precision and accuracy is within 1%. The FSA was computed by the triangular mesh summation method and five 1-D foot measurements were extracted automatically to be used as candidate estimators for FSA estimation formula. The results of the FSA measurements are tabulated on fifteen strata for the Male, the Female and the Total (the two genders combined). The comparison of these FSA measurements with previous studies shows that previous studies underestimated the FSA approximately 4.06% for the Total (for the Male, 6.93%; for the Female, 0.82%). Regression analyses using these five 1-D foot measurements were performed. The results show that foot-length and ball-girth are effective estimators of FSA for the total (FSA=1.043 x foot-length x ball-girth, R(2)=95.4%). A test on the necessity of gender-specific formula indicated that no gender-specific formula is needed, and the formula for the total is good for both genders.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Ankle / anatomy & histology
  • Anthropometry / methods
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Surface Area
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Foot / anatomy & histology*
  • Forefoot, Human / anatomy & histology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Software
  • Young Adult