Cumulative concussion exposure in rugby players: neurocognitive and symptomatic outcomes

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2008 May;30(4):398-409. doi: 10.1080/13803390701443662.


A total of 111 rugby players underwent comprehensive testing to determine the impact of self-reported concussion exposure. Reliable estimates of concussion exposure were associated with an increase in postconcussion symptoms (PCS), but not diminished neurocognitive functioning. Importantly, the effects of concussion exposure on PCS varied as a function of player status. More specifically, extent of concussion exposure was associated with increased memory complaints and overall PCS endorsements in a dose-dependent manner for retired and older recreational players, but not for those who were younger and playing at more competitive levels. Future work should systematically evaluate the constituent participant factors that may influence differential concussion outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Brain Concussion / complications*
  • Brain Concussion / diagnosis
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology*
  • Cognition*
  • Female
  • Football / injuries*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Regression Analysis
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Trauma Severity Indices