This article reviews the primary immunodeficiencies that result in hypogammaglobulinemia or predominantly antibody deficiency disorders. This group makes up the largest proportion of patients with primary immunodeficiency. Significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular basis and clinical characteristics of patients with the more severe forms of antibody deficiency in the last 6 years. Recognition of these disorders remains poor with significant diagnostic delay. The milder forms of antibody deficiency disorders, especially those with normal total serum immunoglobulin G levels, remain poorly characterized and understood. Further work remains to be done in understanding and recognizing these syndromes to benefit patient care and foster further knowledge of the immune system.