Eating and swallowing are complex behaviors involving volitional and reflexive activities of more than 30 nerves and muscles. They have two crucial biologic features: food passage from the oral cavity to stomach and airway protection. The swallowing process is commonly divided into oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages, according to the location of the bolus. The movement of the food in the oral cavity and to the oropharynx differs depending on the type of food (eating solid food versus drinking liquid). Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or esophagus. The goal of dysphagia rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of feeding and swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient alimentation and hydration.