Objective: To examine whether eating until full or eating quickly or combinations of these eating behaviours are associated with being overweight. Design and participants Cross sectional survey.
Setting: Two communities in Japan.
Participants: 3287 adults (1122 men, 2165 women) aged 30-69 who participated in surveys on cardiovascular risk from 2003 to 2006.
Main outcome measures: Body mass index (overweight >/=25.0) and the dietary habits of eating until full (lifestyle questionnaire) and speed of eating (validated brief self administered questionnaire).
Results: 571 (50.9%) men and 1265 (58.4%) women self reported eating until full, and 523 (45.6%) men and 785 (36.3%) women self reported eating quickly. For both sexes the highest age adjusted mean values for height, weight, body mass index, and total energy intake were in the eating until full and eating quickly group compared with the not eating until full and not eating quickly group. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio of being overweight for eating until full was 2.00 (95% confidence interval 1.53 to 2.62) for men and 1.92 (1.53 to 2.40) for women and for eating quickly was 1.84 (1.42 to 2.38) for men and 2.09 (1.69 to 2.59) for women. The multivariable odds ratio of being overweight with both eating behaviours compared with neither was 3.13 (2.20 to 4.45) for men and 3.21 (2.41 to 4.29) for women.
Conclusion: Eating until full and eating quickly are associated with being overweight in Japanese men and women, and these eating behaviours combined may have a substantial impact on being overweight.