From 1960 through 1987, 89 patients with stage I (44 patients) or II (45 patients) vaginal carcinoma (excluding melanomas) were treated primarily at the Mayo Clinic. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in 52 patients, surgery plus radiation in 14, and radiation alone in 23. The median duration of follow-up was 4.4 years. The 5-year survival (Kaplan-Meier method) was 82% for patients with stage I disease and 53% for those with stage II disease (p = 0.009). Analysis of survival according to treatment did not show statistically significant differences. This report is consistent with previous studies showing that stage is an important prognostic factor and that treatment can be individualized, including surgical treatment for primary early-stage vaginal cancer.