Diverse expression patterns of LIM-homeodomain transcription factors (LIM-HDs) in mammalian inner ear development

Dev Dyn. 2008 Nov;237(11):3305-12. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.21735.


LIM-homeodomain transcription factors (LIM-HDs) are essential in tissue patterning and differentiation. But their expression patterns in the inner ear are largely unknown. Here we report on a study of twelve LIM-HDs, by their tempo-spatial patterns that imply distinct yet overlapping roles, in the developing mouse inner ear. Expression of Lmx1a and Isl1 begins in the otocyst stage, with Lmx1a exclusively in the non-sensory and Isl1 in the prosensory epithelia. The second wave of expression at E12.5 includes Lhx3, 5, 9, Isl2, and Lmx1b in the differentiating sensory epithelia with cellular specificities. With the exception of Lmx1a and Lhx3, all LIM-HDs are expressed in ganglion neurons. Expression of multiple LIM-HDs within a cell type suggests their redundant function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ear, Inner / cytology
  • Ear, Inner / embryology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology*
  • Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Mice
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Time Factors


  • Homeodomain Proteins