ABSTRACT Barley yellow dwarf virus strain PAV (BYDV-PAV) RNA and the 17-kDa protein were localized in BYDV-PAV-infected oat cells using in situ hybridization and in situ immunolocalization assays, respectively. The in situ hybridization assay showed labeling of filamentous material in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and virus-induced vesicles with both sense and antisense nucleic acid probes, suggesting that the filamentous material found in BYDV-PAV-infected cells contains viral RNA. BYDV-PAV negative-strand RNA was detected before virus particles were observed, which indicates that RNA replication is initiated before synthesis of viral coat protein in the cytoplasm. The 17-kDa protein was associated with filamentous material in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and virus-induced vesicles. The labeling densities observed using antibodies against the 17-kDa protein were similar in the nucleus and cytoplasm. No labeling of the 17-kDa protein was observed in plasmodesmata, but filaments in the nuclear pores occasionally were labeled. Since BYDV-PAV RNA and 17-kDa protein colocalized within infected cells, it is possible that single-stranded viral RNA is always associated with the 17-kDa protein in vivo. The 17-kDa protein may be required for viral nucleic acid filaments to traverse the nuclear membrane or other membrane systems.