Epidemiology and prevention of cervical cancer in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam

Vaccine. 2008 Aug 19;26 Suppl 12:M71-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.05.039.


Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancers in women from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, particularly HPV-16 and 18, are consistently identified in cervical cancer cases regardless of geographical region. Factors that have been identified to increase the likelihood of HPV exposure or subsequent development of cervical cancer include young age at first intercourse, high parity and multiple sexual partners. Cervical cancer screening programs in these countries include Pap smears, single visit approach utilizing visual inspection with acetic acid followed by cryotherapy, as well as screening with colposcopy. Uptake of screening remains low in all regions and is further compounded by the lack of basic knowledge women have regarding screening as an opportunity for the prevention of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccination with the quadrivalent vaccine has already been approved for use in Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, while the bivalent vaccine has also been approved in the Philippines. However, there has been no national or government vaccination policy implemented in any of these countries.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Human papillomavirus 16 / classification
  • Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification
  • Human papillomavirus 18 / classification
  • Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Indonesia / epidemiology
  • Malaysia / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Papanicolaou Test
  • Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Philippines / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Thailand / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • Vaccination
  • Vaginal Smears
  • Vietnam / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines