The influence of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on satiety in adult humans

Physiol Behav. 2009 Jan 8;96(1):162-8. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2008.09.022. Epub 2008 Oct 9.


Protein is often considered the most satiating macronutrient. The objective was to determine the short-term effect of mixtures of whey protein and glycomacropeptide (GMP) versus a carbohydrate control on satiety in healthy adult humans. The study was a randomised crossover Latin Square design. On 4 separate days, fifty healthy subjects (19 males and 31 females) received a subject-specific breakfast (08:00 h), a preload drink (12:00 h) and lunch (12:30 h). The preload drink was presented as a milkshake with either maltodextrin carbohydrate (control), whey protein isolate (WPI) with no GMP, WPI with naturally present 21% GMP or WPI with naturally present 21% GMP plus added GMP. Satiety was assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by determining ad libitum food intake during a cafeteria style meal offered 30 min after the preload. The VAS indicated that the lower GMP treatment induced a greater feeling of fullness immediately after consumption of the preload compared with the other treatments. Energy and macronutrient intake at lunch did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between treatments although subjects chose to eat foods higher in carbohydrate and lower in protein after the protein preloads. Women consumed the least amount of protein after the protein preloads whereas no difference was found in men. There was some evidence that whey proteins and their components enhance satiety over a short-term period compared to carbohydrate but there was no consistent effect of either whey protein alone or glycomacropeptide.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drinking / drug effects
  • Drinking Behavior / drug effects
  • Drinking Behavior / physiology
  • Eating / drug effects
  • Female
  • Food Preferences / drug effects
  • Food Preferences / physiology
  • Glycopeptides / administration & dosage*
  • Glycopeptides / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Milk Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Satiation / drug effects*
  • Satiety Response / drug effects*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Whey Proteins
  • Young Adult


  • Carbohydrates
  • Glycopeptides
  • Milk Proteins
  • Whey Proteins