Of 1506 marrow transplant patients from 1980 through 1986 reviewed for risk factors for invasive candidal infection defined by positive blood cultures, biopsy, or histologic evidence of tissue invasion, 171 (11.4%) had invasive infection, with a significantly higher incidence in the more recent years of review; 40% (69 patients) had evidence of tissue-invasive disease without fungemia. Of 102 patients with fungemia, 45% had candidemia alone with a mortality of 39%. Mortality in patients with tissue involvement was 90% with or without fungemia. Factors that increased infection were age, acute graft-versus-host disease, and donor mismatch. Factors that decreased infection included conditioning with 12 Gy of fractionated irradiation and cyclophosphamide, transplantation for aplastic anemia, and more rapid engraftment. Among fungemic patients, the number of days of fungemia was a risk factor for tissue invasion while more rapid engraftment was protective.