Non-invasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal blood

Int J Legal Med. 2009 Jan;123(1):75-9. doi: 10.1007/s00414-008-0292-9. Epub 2008 Oct 24.


Prenatal paternity analysis can be performed only after invasive sampling of chorionic villi or amnionic fluid. Aiming to enable noninvasive paternity testing, we attempted to amplify fetal alleles from maternal plasma. Cell-free DNA was isolated from plasma of 20 pregnant women and amplified with ampFLSTR Identifiler and ampFLSTR Yfiler kits. Unfortunately, autosomal fetal alleles were heavily suppressed by maternal DNA, and the only locus that was reliably amplified with AmpFLSTR Identifiler kit was amelogenin, which revealed only fetal gender. Much better success was obtained with AmpFLSTR Yfiler kit, which, in the case of male fetuses, successfully amplified between six and 16 fetal loci. All amplified fetal alleles matched the alleles of their putative fathers, confirming the tested paternity. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of noninvasive prenatal paternity testing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Amelogenin / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Human, Y
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Paternity*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Pregnancy / blood*
  • Prenatal Care
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences


  • Amelogenin