First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: a review of field efficacy trials

Vaccine. 2008 Dec 9;26(52):6759-67. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.09.085. Epub 2008 Oct 23.


First generation candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis, prepared using inactivated whole parasites as their main ingredient, were considered as promising because of their relative ease of production and low cost. These vaccines have been the subject of many investigations over several decades and are the only leishmaniasis vaccine candidates which have undergone phase 3 clinical trial evaluation. Although the studies demonstrated the safety of the vaccines and several studies showed reasonable immunogenicity and some indication of protection, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is yet to be identified. Despite this overall failure, these trials contributed significantly to increasing knowledge on human leishmaniasis immunology. To provide a collective view, this review discusses the methods and findings of field efficacy trials of first generation leishmaniasis vaccine clinical trials conducted in the Old and New Worlds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Africa / epidemiology
  • Animals
  • Asia / epidemiology
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Humans
  • Leishmania / immunology
  • Leishmaniasis / immunology*
  • Leishmaniasis / prevention & control*
  • Leishmaniasis Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • South America / epidemiology


  • Leishmaniasis Vaccines