Polymorphisms in the NQO1, GSTT and GSTM genes are associated with coronary heart disease and biomarkers of oxidative stress

Mutat Res. 2009 Mar 31;674(1-2):93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.09.009. Epub 2008 Oct 2.


It was hypothesized that the presence of genetic polymorphisms that decrease activity of the detoxification enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and quinone oxido-reductase (NQO1) may contribute to heart disease and affect biomarkers of coronary health and oxidative stress. Sixty-seven patients with angiographically confirmed coronary heart disease (CHD) and 63 healthy controls were genotyped for polymorphisms in the GST isoforms Mu and Theta (GSTM and GSTT respectively) and NQO1. Participants' blood levels of homocysteine (Hcy), C-reactive protein (CRP), oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOX) were measured. TAOX levels were significantly lower in women than men (P < or = 0.001) and this finding was more marked in the control group (P < or = 0.001). Hcy levels were higher in CHD patients (P=0.003 vs. control) which was mostly attributed to female patients (P=0.034 case vs. control). GSTM polymorphisms were present with greater frequencies in CHD cases with the odds ratio (OR) for GSTM equal to 3.77 vs. control. CHD patients also have an increased incidence of both GSTM and GSTT null polymorphisms (OR=5.13). In contrast, NQO1 polymorphisms were protective in CHD patients (OR=0.18 vs. control), which when stratified for genotype was due to heterozygous individuals. Significantly higher C-reactive protein levels occurred in CHD patients with lower NQO1 activity (P=0.001), however, due to the large variations in CRP levels seen in CHD patients; the clinical importance of this difference is unclear. Smokers with the GSTM null polymorphism were more likely to have CHD than non-smokers expressing the GSTM null polymorphism (OR=3.54, P=0.079). We conclude that a lack of activity in the detoxification enzymes NQO1 and GSTM, and biomarker levels are strongly associated with coronary heart disease with sex as a mitigating factor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers* / metabolism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coronary Disease / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Glutathione Transferase / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation, Missense
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) / genetics*
  • Oxidative Stress / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Sex Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)
  • NQO1 protein, human
  • glutathione S-transferase T1
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • glutathione S-transferase M1