It is important to identify a germline mutation in a patient with an inherited cancer syndrome to allow mutation carriers to be included in cancer surveillance programs, which have been proven to save lives. Many of the mutations identified result in premature termination of translation, and thus in loss-of-function of the encoded mutated protein. However, the significance of a large proportion of the sequence changes reported is unknown. Some of these variants will be associated with a high risk of cancer and have direct clinical consequence. Many criteria can be used to classify variants with unknown significance; most criteria are based on the characteristics of the amino acid change, on segregation data and appearance of the variant, on the presence of the variant in controls, or on functional assays. In inherited cancers, tumor characteristics can also be used to classify variants. It is worthwhile to examine the clinical, morphological and molecular features of a patient, and his or her family, when assessing whether the role of a variant is likely to be neutral or pathogenic. Here we describe the advantages and disadvantages of using the tumor characteristics of patients carrying germline variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in BRCA1, BRCA2, or in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6, to infer pathogenicity.
2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.