Mitochondria are highly specialized organelles and major players in fundamental aspects of cell physiology. In yeast, energy metabolism and coupling of mitochondrial activity to growth and survival is controlled by the protein kinase A pathway. In higher eukaryotes, modulation of the so-called A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP) complex regulates mitochondrial dynamics and activity, adapting the oxidative machinery and the metabolic pathway to changes in physiological demand. Protein kinases and phosphatases are assembled by AKAPs within transduction units, providing a mechanism to control signaling events at mitochondria and other target organelles. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of signal transducers and effectors provides an additional layer of complexity in the regulation of mitochondria homeostasis. Genetic evidence indicates that alteration of one or more components of these biochemical pathways leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and human diseases. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of AKAP scaffolds and the proteasome pathway in the control of oxidative metabolism, organelle dynamics and the mitochondrial signaling network. These aspects are crucial elements for maintaining a proper energy balance and cellular lifespan.