Mantle cell lymphoma is characterized clinically by an aggressive clinical course and is relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapies. When in its advanced stages, currently available immunochemotherapy regimens remain noncurative despite high initial response rates. In contrast, consolidating high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell retransfusion significantly extends progression-free survival of young patients. Currently, allogenic bone marrow transplantation represents the only therapy with the potential for a curative approach, although associated with a high rate of complications. New concepts of therapy are urgently warranted, including new molecular approaches, such as bortezomib, thalidomide, lenalidomide, and temsirolimus.