Sexually transmitted infections remain a major public health concern in the United States. An estimated 19 million infections occur each year. The economic burden imposed by sexually transmitted infections is impressive: direct medical costs are estimated to be as high as $15.5 billion annually. Women and infants disproportionately bear the long-term consequences of sexually transmitted diseases. This article briefly introduces various infections, reviews new diagnostic information, and presents the latest guidelines for therapy. All recommended and alternative regimens are drawn from the most recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention treatment guidelines and recent updates.