Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive childhood myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the overproduction of myelomonocytic cells. JMML incidence approaches 1.2/million persons in the United States (Cancer Incidence and Survival Among Children and Adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975-1995). Although rare, JMML is innately informative as the molecular genetics of this disease implicates hyperactive Ras as an essential initiating event. Given that Ras is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human cancer, findings from this disease are applicable to more genetically diverse and complex adult leukemias. The JMML Foundation (www.jmmlfoundation.org) was founded by parent advocates dedicated to finding a cure for this disease. They work to bring investigators together in a collaborative manner. This article summarizes key presentations from The Second International JMML Symposium, on 7-8 December 2007 in Atlanta, GA. A list of all participants is in Supplementary Table.