Diet, vitamin D and vertebral mineral density in hypercalciuric calcium stone formers

Kidney Int. 1991 Jun;39(6):1193-205. doi: 10.1038/ki.1991.151.


To elucidate the pathophysiology of dietary calcium independent hypercalciuria, 42 calcium stone formers (Ca SF) were selected because they had on free diet a calciuria greater than 0.1 mmol/kg/day. For four days they were put on a diet restricted in calcium (Ca RD) by exclusion of the dairy products. They collected 24 hour urines on free diet and on day 4 of Ca RD as well as the two-hour fasting urines on the morning of the day 5 and the four-hour urines passed after an oral calcium load of 1 g, for measurement of creatinine, Ca, PO4, urea and total hydroxyprolinuria (THP). On day 5 fasting plasma concentrations of Ca, PO4, intact PTH, Gla protein, calcidiol and calcitriol were measured. The patients were firstly classified into dietary hypercalciuria (DH, 18 patients) and dietary calcium-independent hypercalciuria (IH, 24 patients) on the basis of the disappearance or not of hypercalciuria on Ca RD. Then the patients with IH were subclassified into absorptive hypercalciuria (AH) because of normal fasting calciuria (8 patients) and into fasting hypercalciuria (16 patients). Fasting hypercalciuric patients were subsequently divided according to the PTH levels into renal hypercalciuria (RH, 1 patient) with elevated fasting PTH becoming normal after the Ca load and undetermined hypercalciuria (UH, 15 patients) with normal PTH levels. Furthermore, their vertebral mineral density (VMD) was measured by quantitative computerized tomography which was normal in DH (91 +/- 6% of the normal mean for age and sex) but was decreased in IH to 69 +/- 4%. No difference in VMD was observed between AH and UH. Urinary excretions of urea, phosphate and THP was higher in IH than in DH and comparable in AH and UH. Sodium excretion Ca RD was the same in all groups and subgroups as well as the plasma parameters. Plasma calcitriol was increased in IH and DH comparatively to normal in spite of normal plasma calcidiol. Calciuria increase after oral calcium load, an index of Ca absorption, was higher in IH than in controls and comparable in IH and DH as well as in the three subgroups of IH. From these data and correlation studies in IH it is concluded: (1.) VMD is decreased in Ca stone formers with IH but not in those with DH, making the distinction of these two groups of hypercalciuria patients clinically relevant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Chemical Analysis
  • Bone Density*
  • Calcium / urine*
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi / etiology*
  • Male
  • Natriuresis
  • Reference Values
  • Spine / metabolism*
  • Vitamin D / urine*


  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium