The GOA database in 2009--an integrated Gene Ontology Annotation resource

Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D396-403. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn803. Epub 2008 Oct 27.


The Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) project at the EBI ( provides high-quality electronic and manual associations (annotations) of Gene Ontology (GO) terms to UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) entries. Annotations created by the project are collated with annotations from external databases to provide an extensive, publicly available GO annotation resource. Currently covering over 160 000 taxa, with greater than 32 million annotations, GOA remains the largest and most comprehensive open-source contributor to the GO Consortium (GOC) project. Over the last five years, the group has augmented the number and coverage of their electronic pipelines and a number of new manual annotation projects and collaborations now further enhance this resource. A range of files facilitate the download of annotations for particular species, and GO term information and associated annotations can also be viewed and downloaded from the newly developed GOA QuickGO tool (, which allows users to precisely tailor their annotation set.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Databases, Protein*
  • Genes*
  • Humans
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Proteome / genetics
  • Vocabulary, Controlled*


  • Proteins
  • Proteome