Chronic renal failure in Sudanese children: aetiology and outcomes

Pediatr Nephrol. 2009 Feb;24(2):349-53. doi: 10.1007/s00467-008-1022-8. Epub 2008 Oct 29.


The provision of tertiary paediatric nephrology facilities has led to increasing referrals of children with chronic renal failure (CRF). We report the aetiology and outcomes over 5 years, during which period the improving socio-economic situation has allowed increasing provision of dialysis and transplantation. The records of 205 children (124 male; 60.5%) who were referred to a tertiary paediatric nephrology unit in Khartoum between 2001 and 2006 with a glomerular filtration rate of less than 50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) body surface area were reviewed. The mean age at the time of diagnosis with CRF was 9.8 years (range 3 months-17 years). The aetiology was chronic glomerulonephritis in 52 (25.4%), congenital urological malformations in 36 (17.5%), urolithiasis in 19 (9.3%), hereditary nephropathy in 14 (6.8%), multisystem diseases in 4 (2%), and cause unknown in 80 (39.1%). Of the 205 children, 136 (63%) had reached end-stage renal failure, with chronic haemodialysis being undertaken in 48 (35.3%), intermittent peritoneal dialysis in 43 (31.6%), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in 17 (14.7%), and no treatment in 25 (18.4%). At the end of the study period 53 of the 205 (25.9%) remained on dialysis, 51 (25%) were on conservative treatment, 8 (3.9%) had received transplants, 48 (23.4%) had died, and 45 (22%) had been lost to follow-up. The results illustrate the geographical variations in CRF aetiology in different countries, which may be influenced by current patterns of referral as well as environmental and society factors. The large number with an unknown aetiology for their CRF requires further prospective investigation. We hope the current high mortality rate will improve with earlier referral, improved nutrition, family support, and better access to treatment modalities, especially the provision of kidney transplantation from living related donors.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Glomerulonephritis / complications
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic* / etiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic* / surgery
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic* / therapy
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Male
  • Medical Audit
  • Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory*
  • Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • Renal Dialysis*
  • Sudan
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Tract / abnormalities
  • Urolithiasis / complications