Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in industrialized countries, and occurs predominantly after the menopause. Although most endometrial carcinomas are detected at low stage, there is still a significant mortality from the disease. In postmenopausal women, prolonged life expectancy, changes in reproductive behavior and prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as hormone replacement therapy use, may partially account for the observed increases of incidence rates in some countries. In order to improve treatment and follow-up of endometrial carcinoma patients, the importance of various prognostic factors has been extensively studied. The identification of high-risk groups would make it possible to avoid unnecessary adjuvant treatment among patients with a good prognosis. Over the past few decades, several studies have demonstrated the prognostic importance of different parameters including lymph node status, histological type of carcinoma (serous carcinoma and clear cell carcinomas are poor prognostic types), histological grade, stage of disease, depth of myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space involvement and cervical involvement. Other factors currently being investigated are estrogen and progesterone receptor status, p53 status, flow cytometric analysis for ploidy and S-phase fraction, and oncogenes such as HER-2/neu (c-erbB-2).