Guinea-pigs were infected intranasally with Mycoplasma genitalium or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The lung lesions produced by the two mycoplasmas were comparable in extent and histological pattern. Sera of both animal groups taken 2 weeks after infection reacted strongly in the complement fixation test with the M. pneumoniae glycolipid extract. In an ELISA using the respective adherence proteins (P1-protein of M. pneumoniae and MgPa of M. genitalium), strong specific activity, but also considerable cross-reactions were found. Epitope analysis by using overlapping octapeptides of a P1-region immunologically active in human M. pneumoniae infections and of the corresponding MgPa-region revealed six common epitopes but also one M. genitalium and two M. pneumoniae specific determinants. For analysis of a possible pathogenicity of M. genitalium in the human respiratory tract species-specific tests have to be developed.