Background: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging healthcare-associated pathogen.
Objective: To describe the epidemiology of and clinical outcomes associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection and to identify risk factors associated with mortality among patients with this type of infection.
Setting: Mount Sinai Hospital, a 1,171-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in New York City.
Design: Two matched case-control studies.
Methods: In the first matched case-control study, case patients with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection were compared with control patients with carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae infection. In the second case-control study, patients who survived carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection were compared with those who did not survive, to identify risk factors associated with mortality among patients with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection.
Results: There were 99 case patients and 99 control patients identified. Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection was independently associated with recent organ or stem-cell transplantation (P=.008), receipt of mechanical ventilation (P=.04), longer length of stay before infection (P=.01), and exposure to cephalosporins (P=.02) and carbapenems (P<.001). Case patients were more likely than control patients to die during hospitalization (48% vs 20%; P<.001) and to die from infection (38% vs 12%; P<.001). Removal of the focus of infection (ie, debridement) was independently associated with patient survival (P=.002). The timely administration of antibiotics with in vitro activity against carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae was not associated with patient survival.
Conclusions: Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection is associated with numerous healthcare-related risk factors and with high mortality. The mortality rate associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection and the limited antimicrobial options for treatment of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection highlight the need for improved detection of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection, identification of effective preventive measures, and development of novel agents with reliable clinical efficacy against carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae.