Transient elastography (FibroScan) is a non-invasive method proposed for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease by measuring liver stiffness. It can be easily performed at the bedside or in the outpatients clinic with immediate results and good reproducibility. Limitations include failure (no value) in around 5% of cases, mainly in patients with substantial thoracic fat. In France, FibroScan or FibroTest are recommended for the initial evaluation of liver fibrosis in previously untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C and no concomitant health disorders. FibroScan is validated for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C, recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation, co-infections in HIV-HCV patients and chronic cholestatic diseases, but needs further evaluation in other chronic liver diseases. FibroScan is an excellent tool for early detection of cirrhosis and evaluation of portal hypertension, for which it may have prognostic value as well. Studies are needed using FibroScan for the follow-up of patients with and without treatment, and for the screening of patients at risk of liver disease. However, although FibroScan is a good method for the evaluation of fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease, it has to be borne in mind that FibroScan evaluates liver stiffness. Therefore, FibroScan values have to be interpreted according to clinical, biological and morphological data.