The effect of a water exercise program on bone density of postmenopausal women

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008 Sep;48(3):352-9.


Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a seven months program of water exercise, on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women.

Methods: Thirty-five postmenopausal women trained for seven months for three one-hour sessions per week. DEXA test findings for vertebrae L2-L4 showed that although the time factor had a significant effect only on the bone mineral content (BMC), (4.61 P < 0.05), the interaction of time group was found to be significant for each of the variables: BMD (9.25 P < 0.01), BMC (7.99 P < 0.01), z-score (5.35 P < 0.05) and t-score (9.41 P < 0.01).

Results: These interactions indicate a general trend towards maintenance or improvement of bone status in the experimental group and a trend towards declining bone status for the control group. DEXA test findings for femoral neck density indicated no significant differences between the groups pre and post treatment. However a significant interaction was found for BMC (8.08 P < 0.01) in the right leg indicating an increase trend in BMC in the experimental group and a trend towards decrease for the control group.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study support the hypothesis that it is possible to plan and execute a water exercise program that has a positive effect on bone status of post-menopausal women.

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Aged
  • Bone Density*
  • Female
  • Femur Neck / physiology
  • Health Status Indicators
  • Humans
  • Hydrotherapy*
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Postmenopause*
  • Program Evaluation*
  • Risk Factors
  • Water*
  • Women's Health*


  • Water