This study compares video capsule endoscopy (VCE) with histological specimens of proximal small bowel in patients with celiac disease who have failed to respond to a gluten-free diet. Patients with nonresponsive celiac disease underwent capsule endoscopy, and concordance between endoscopy and histology was then calculated using the kappa statistic. In 19 patients, endoscopy videos were reported as normal in ten (53%) case, as having mild changes in three (16%) cases, and as having moderate-severe changes in six (31%) cases. Two (11%) had acute ulcers. No small bowel tumors were seen. Endoscopy demonstrated concordance with histological changes in 14 of the 18 patients with histology available (78% concordance). The kappa statistic suggested a substantial degree of concordance between histology and endoscopic findings. Endoscopy with distal duodenal biopsies is superior to VCE in detecting proximal, nonresponsive celiac disease, but more distal lesions may be missed such that the strength of VCE lies in its ability to visualize the entire small bowel.