Raloxifene reduces circulating levels of interleukin-7 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in postmenopausal women

Atherosclerosis. 2009 Jun;204(2):471-5. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.09.014. Epub 2008 Sep 21.


Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of raloxifene on changes in circulating levels of cytokines and chemokines in relation to changes in lipid profiles and markers of inflammation in postmenopausal women.

Methods: Fifty-three postmenopausal women aged 45-65 years old were randomly assigned in open, parallel-group fashion to a control group or raloxifene group. Twenty-six women received oral administration of 60 mg raloxifene every day and 27 women did not receive any drugs for 12 months. Serum cytokines levels were simultaneously measured using a multiplexed human cytokine assay.

Results: Serum IL-7 concentrations in women who received raloxifene were decreased significantly (p=0.014), and serum monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 concentrations in women who received raloxifene were decreased significantly (p=0.0003) at 12 months. In the control group, serum levels of MCP-1 and IL-7 did not show significant changes. There were significant differences (p=0.032 and p=0.0024, respectively) in percentage changes in IL-7 and MCP-1 in the control group and in the raloxifene group. Levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and E-selectin were decreased significantly in women who received raloxifene, but the percentage changes in LDL-C and E-selectin over a period of 12 months were not significantly correlated with percentage changes in IL-7 and MCP-1 over the same period.

Conclusion: Circulating levels of IL-7 and MCP-1 decrease in postmenopausal women who received raloxifene.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Chemokine CCL2 / blood*
  • Down-Regulation
  • E-Selectin / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood
  • Interleukin-7 / blood*
  • Lipids / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride / administration & dosage
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride / therapeutic use*
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / administration & dosage
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use*


  • Biomarkers
  • CCL2 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • E-Selectin
  • IL7 protein, human
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-7
  • Lipids
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride