Using [18F]dopa, [11C]raclopride, C15O2, and positron emission tomography, we have assessed striatal dopamine storage capacity, dopamine D2-receptor integrity, and regional cerebral blood flow, respectively, of 6 patients with neuroacanthocytosis. The patients with neurocanthocytosis all had chorea and variable combinations of seizures, dementia, axonal neuropathy, and orolingual self-multiation. [18F]dopa positron emmission tomographic findings were compared with 30 normal controls and 16 patients with sporadic, L-dopa-responsive, Parkinson's disease. Caudate and anterior putamen [18F]dopa uptake were normal in patients with neuroacanthocytosis, but mean posterior putamen [18F]dopa uptake was reduced to 42% of normal, similar to that in patients with Parkinson's disease. In patients with neuroacanthocytosis, mean equilibrium caudate: cerebellum and putamen: cerebellum [11C]raclopride uptake ratios were reduced to 54% and 62% of normal, compatible with a 65% and 53% loss of caudate and putamen D2-receptor-binding sites, respectively. Striatal and frontal blood flow was also depressed. The severe loss of D2-receptor-bearing striatal neuron, with concomitant loss of dopaminergic projections from the nigra to the posterior putamen, is consistent with both chorea and extrapyramidal rigidity being features of patients with neuroacanthocytosis.