Treating tobacco dependence among African Americans: a meta-analytic review

Health Psychol. 2008 May;27(3S):S271-82. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.27.3(suppl.).s271.


Objective: African Americans suffer disproportionately from smoking-related morbidity and mortality; yet it is unclear whether existing treatments benefit this population. The purposes of this meta-analysis were to evaluate the overall efficacy of smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) among African American adults and to examine specific study characteristics and methods that influence treatment outcome.

Design: Twenty published and unpublished studies representing 32 hypothesis tests and 12,743 smokers compared SCIs to control conditions.

Main outcome measures: (1) Smoking abstinence post-treatment; (2) abstinence at the first follow-up assessment; and (3) 11 potential moderators of treatment effects.

Results: Overall, SCIs increased the odds of cessation by 40% at posttest and 30% at follow-up. Treatment type, setting, cultural specificity, unit of analysis, outcome measure, nature of control group, and biochemical verification moderated the overall treatment effect size.

Conclusion: SCIs are efficacious among African Americans. Theoretical, clinical, and future research implications are discussed.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans* / psychology
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Research Design
  • Smoking Cessation / ethnology*
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / ethnology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / rehabilitation*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States