Objective: African Americans suffer disproportionately from smoking-related morbidity and mortality; yet it is unclear whether existing treatments benefit this population. The purposes of this meta-analysis were to evaluate the overall efficacy of smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) among African American adults and to examine specific study characteristics and methods that influence treatment outcome.
Design: Twenty published and unpublished studies representing 32 hypothesis tests and 12,743 smokers compared SCIs to control conditions.
Main outcome measures: (1) Smoking abstinence post-treatment; (2) abstinence at the first follow-up assessment; and (3) 11 potential moderators of treatment effects.
Results: Overall, SCIs increased the odds of cessation by 40% at posttest and 30% at follow-up. Treatment type, setting, cultural specificity, unit of analysis, outcome measure, nature of control group, and biochemical verification moderated the overall treatment effect size.
Conclusion: SCIs are efficacious among African Americans. Theoretical, clinical, and future research implications are discussed.